CubeSat Commercial Constellations

View in fullscreen (much more data and search filters)
NewSpace Index ( includes microsatellite and smallsat constellations as well!

Organization Launched /
Planned size
Form factor Field Image
Orbcomm (OG2) 50 / 52 1991 Microsat, Smallsat, 3U IoT / M2M, AIS Orbcomm
AprizeSat 12 / 12 2002 Microsat IoT / M2M AprizeSat
Planet (Flock / Dove) 387 / 150 2013 3U Earth observation Planet
Spire (Lemur / Minas) 115 / 150 2013 3U Weather, AIS, ADS-B, Earthquake (ELF), Constellation-As-A-Service, GNSS Reflectometry, GNSS Radio Occultation Spire
GeoOptics (CICERO) 7 / ? 2017 6U Weather GeoOptics
NanoAvionics 3 / 72 2017 6U, 12U? IoT / M2M, Constellation-As-A-Service NanoAvionics
Helios Wire 2 / 30 2017 6U, 16U IoT / M2M Helios Wire
Swarm Technologies 9 / 600 2018 0.25U, 1U IoT / M2M Swarm Technologies
Kepler Communications 2 / 140 2018 3U, 6U, ? IoT / M2M, Internet, Store-and-Forward Kepler Communications
Analytical Space 2 / ? 2018 6U IoT / M2M, Orbital data relay, Optical comms Analytical Space
Hiber 2 / 48 2018 6U, 3U IoT / M2M Hiber
Fleet Space 4 / 100 2018 3U, 12U, 1.5U, 6U IoT / M2M Fleet Space
Astrocast 2 / 80 2018 3U IoT / M2M Astrocast
Aistech (DANU, HYDRA) 2 / 150 2018 2U, 6U IoT / M2M, ADS-B, AIS, IR imaging Aistech
Harris Corporation 1 / 12 2018 6U Weather Harris Corporation
Reaktor Space 1 / 36 2018 6U, 2U Earth observation, Hyperspectral Reaktor Space
Guodian Gaoke (Apocalypse) 6 / 38 2018 6U IoT / M2M Guodian Gaoke
Commsat (Ladybug / Ladybird) 8 / 72 2018 Microsat, 6U, 3U IoT / M2M, AIS Commsat
Myriota 1 / 50 2018 3U IoT / M2M Myriota
LaserFleet 2 / 288 2018 CubeSat Internet, Optical comms LaserFleet
SpaceChain 2 / ? 2018 Hosted Blockchain
OHB Italia (EAGLET) 1 / 20 2018 3U Earth observation, AIS OHB Italia
ADASPACE 4 / 192 2018 Microsat, CubeSat Earth observation ADASPACE
Orbital Micro Systems 1 / 40 2019 3U? Weather Orbital Micro Systems
Lacuna Space 1 / 32 2019 3U, 6U IoT / M2M Lacuna Space
Blink Astro 1 / ? 2019 3U IoT / M2M Blink Astro
SatRevolution (REC) 1 / 1024 2019 2U, 6U Earth observation SatRevolution
Lynk 1 / 1000 2019 Hosted, CubeSat? IoT / M2M, Internet, Direct-to-phones, Satellite-to-cell
NSLComm 1 / 80 2019 6U Internet, IoT / M2M NSLComm
UnseenLabs 1 / 50 2019 6U RF spectrum monitoring UnseenLabs
ZeroG Lab (Lingque, Magpie) 2 / 132 2019 6U Earth observation ZeroG Lab
Alba Orbital 2 / ? 2019 PocketQube Earth observation Alba Orbital
Hera Systems 1 / 50 2019 12U Earth observation Hera Systems
Elbit Systems (NANOVA) 1 / ? 2019 3U IoT / M2M Elbit Systems
Fossa Systems 1 / ? 2019 PocketQube IoT / M2M Fossa Systems
Sen (EarthTV) 1 / ? 2019 16U Earth observation, Video Sen
Stara Space 2 / 120 2019 PocketQube Orbital data relay, Data storage Stara Space
Eutelsat (CubeSats) 0 / ? 2020 3U, CubeSat IoT / M2M Eutelsat
Kleos Space 0 / 40 2020 CubeSat AIS, Geolocation, RF spectrum monitoring Kleos Space
Golbriak Space 0 / ? 2020 6U, ? Optical comms, ? Golbriak Space
Kawa Space 0 / ? 2020 CubeSat Earth observation, Hyperspectral, SAR
SpeQtral 0 / ? 2020 CubeSat? QKD, Optical comms
OQ Technology 0 / ? 2020 CubeSat, 1U? IoT / M2M OQ Technology
Scanway 0 / ? 2020 6U Earth observation, IR imaging, Hyperspectral Scanway
Horizon Technologies (Amber) 0 / ? 2020 6U, 12U RF spectrum monitoring, SIGINT Horizon Technologies
Transcelestial 0 / ? 2020 CubeSat? Orbital data relay, Optical comms
Bluefield 0 / 22 2020 16U Emissions monitoring Bluefield
Elecnor Deimos (NEPTUNO) 0 / ? 2020 3U AIS, Maritime
Aerial Maritime 0 / ? 2020 3U? AIS, ADS-B Aerial Maritime
Karten Space 0 / 14 2020 6U Earth observation, AIS Karten Space
HEO Robotics (ARGUS) 0 / 12 2020 CubeSat SSA (Space Situational Awareness), Asteroid prospecting HEO Robotics
SpaceTime 0 / ? 2020 3U Earth observation, VR/AR
Sateliot 0 / 100 2020 CubeSat IoT / M2M, Direct-to-phones, Satellite-to-cell Sateliot
Pixxel 0 / ? 2020 CubeSat Earth observation
Tekever 0 / 12 2020 16U Earth observation, AIS, ADS-B, IoT / M2M Tekever
NuSpace 0 / ? 2020 CubeSat IoT / M2M
Inovor (Skyris / Hyperion) 0 / ? 2021 12U SSA (Space Situational Awareness), Earth observation Inovor
ConstelIR 0 / ? 2021 CubeSat? IR imaging, Earth observation ConstelIR
OroraTech 0 / 100 2021 3U Weather, IR imaging OroraTech
Alya Nanosatellites 0 / ? 2021 6U Earth observation, IoT / M2M
Start Rocket 0 / ? 2021 CubeSat? Orbital Display (Advertising) Start Rocket
ISISpace (BrightSkies, Spectrolite) 0 / ? 2021 12U Emissions monitoring ISISpace
KP Labs 0 / ? 2022 6U Earth observation, Hyperspectral, ? KP Labs
Avant Space (Constellation) 0 / 20 2022 16U Orbital Display (Advertising)
ISISpace (AMS) 0 / ? 2022 16U Earth observation, IR imaging ISISpace
Asteroid Mining Corp 0 / ? ? CubeSat, ? Asteroid prospecting Asteroid Mining Corp
ArQit 0 / ? ? CubeSat? QKD, Optical comms
Skycraft 0 / 200 ? ? ADS-B, ?
SpaceAble 0 / ? ? CubeSat SSA (Space Situational Awareness) SpaceAble
Artemis Space (BEACON) 0 / ? Dormant? CubeSat IoT / M2M
Koolock 0 / ? Dormant? CubeSat Earth observation, IR imaging, Weather
SRT Marine 0 / 6 Dormant? 6U AIS
Sky and Space 3 / 200 Cancelled? 8U, 6U, 3U IoT / M2M Sky and Space
Astro Digital (Landmapper) 5 / 25 Cancelled 6U, 16U Earth observation Astro Digital
HyperCubes 0 / ? Cancelled CubeSat? Earth observation, Hyperspectral
Dunvegan Space (BitSat) 0 / 24 Cancelled 3U IoT / M2M, Data storage
ISISpace (TRITON) 0 / 16 Cancelled 3U AIS
Outernet 0 / 200 Cancelled 1U, 3U Internet Outernet
EarthCube 0 / 10 Cancelled CubeSat Earth observation, IR imaging
Ragnarok Industries 0 / ? Cancelled CubeSat Internet, IoT / M2M
Rupercorp 0 / ? Cancelled 6U Earth observation
ConsenSys Space 3 / 10 Cancelled 12U Earth observation, IR imaging, Hyperspectral ConsenSys Space
Tyvak 0 / ? Cancelled CubeSat IoT / M2M
GomSpace 0 / 10 Cancelled 6U IoT / M2M, SSA (Space Situational Awareness) GomSpace
Promethean Labs 0 / ? Cancelled CubeSat Emissions monitoring
Dauria Aerospace 2 / 8 Cancelled 6U Earth observation Dauria Aerospace
Vissidus Technologies 0 / ? Cancelled CubeSat Space debris removal, On-orbit servicing
Xoterra Aerospace 0 / 88 Cancelled CubeSat Earth observation

Last update: 2020-04-19 | Changelog

State-of-the-art CubeSat Technologies

Personal selection to also show variety. There may be comparable products from multiple companies now. See Ecosystem and Companies for all.
Complimentary reading: NASA Small Spacecraft Technology State of the Art (online version) and Achieving Science with CubeSats reports.

Technology Organization Summary Image
Communications Planet 200+ Mbit/s to 5 m ground station in X band with patch antenna. Planet Labs 3U CubeSat
NASA Mars Cube One (MarCO) reflectarray capable of 8 Kbit/s from Mars in X-band. Three 33.3 cm x 19.9 cm panels achieve >28 dB gain at 8.4 GHz. MarCO CubeSat Reflectarray Antenna
NASA KaPDA parabolic deployable Ka-band antenna with 0.5 m diameter, 1.5U stowed size, 1.2 kg mass and 42.5 dB gain. KaPDA parabolic Ka-band antenna
NASA Iris V2 Transponder. Parameters include 0.5U, 1.2 kg and interoperability with Deep Space Network (DSN) at X-band. NASA Iris V2 Transponder
Astro Digital (Aquila) 40 Mbit/s in 26.8 GHz Ka-band with patch antenna on Perseus-M 6U CubeSats. Module is about 1U and 1 kg. Astro Digital first Ka-band transmitter
Aerospace Corp 1.5U AeroCube-7 (OCSD) will do optical communications with data rates up to 622 Mbps using 80 cm ground station. OCSD 1.5U CubeSat with Laser Communications
Syrlinks EWC27 X Band transmitter. Up to 100 Mbps. Up to 13.3 GB per pass can be downloaded on a 5 m station or 5.8 GB with a 3.4 m station. Syrlinks X-band transmitter
NearSpace Launch Using GlobalStar satellite network for 24/7 communications. Module is only 44 × 88 mm, weighs 25 g and consumes 200 mW with 500 mW peak.
Tendeg 1 m apeture, scalable to 2-4 m. 50 dB gain at 36 GHz, 2.5 kg, 3U. Tendeg KaTENna CubeSat Antenna
Tethers Unlimited K-Band Transmitter for up to 500 Mbps. 0.3U and 0.5 kg. Tethers Unlimited K-Band Transmitter
Tesat CubeLCT laser transmitter for CubeSats. 0.3U, 0.35 kg, 8W and 100 Mbps with 1 deg pointing. Tesat CubeLCT Laser Transmitter
Kepler Communications Fastest CubeSat? Ku-band of 320 Mbps downlink & 100 Mbps uplink. Kepler 3U CubeSat
Power Planet 3+3 3U deployable solar panels Planet 3U CubeSat
MMA Design HaWK steerable 3 × 3U solar arrays capable of tracking Sun and 36W peak power. Might use Honeybee SADA drive actuator. MMA Design CubeSat Deployable Solar Panels
NASA ISARA has solar cells opposite the reflectarray. 3 × 3U panels achieve 33 dB of gain at 26 GHz and data rates about 100 Mbps. NASA ISARA 3U CubeSat Reflectarray Antenna
Pumpkin High‐Power Articulated Solar Array for Lunar 6U CubeSats. 126W BOL. Pumpkin DASA Solar Array
Compact Satellite Bus Planet Bus is a wrap-around design of about 0.25U - 0.5U total volume. Includes star camera, GPS, 4 reaction wheels. Planet Labs 3U CubeSat
Tyvak Intrepid platform avionics, power system, communication, and payload interface are all hosted in a 9 × 9 × 3 cm package. Tyvak Intrepid CubeSat Platform
Propulsion NASA Solar sail with an area of ~86 m2 that fits into 2U and has 2.5 kg mass. NASA CubeSat Solar Sail
Busek BIT-3 propulsion sized 2.5U includes 1.5 kg solid iodine propellant and will provide 6U CubeSat up to 3 km/s of delta-V. Busek CubeSat BIT-3 Propulsion
Phase Four CubeSat Ambipolar Thruster (CAT) sized 4U could provide 8 km/s of delta-V for 6 kg dry mass satellite consuming 2.56 kg of water. Phase Four CAT CubeSat Thruster
Bradford Space Comet-1 thrusters are simple, safe, and cost-effective electrothermal propulsion systems that use water as propellant. Bradford Space CubeSat Thruster
VACCO Variety of high-performance cold gas, warm gas and green monopropellant thrusters. More than 14 flight MiPS have been produced. VACCO MarCO CubeSat Thruster
Enpulsion IFM Nano Thruster uses liquid metal as the propellant, which is at solid state at room temperature. Enpulsion IFM Nano Thruster
Accion Systems TILE ionic liquid electrospray propulsion has very low SWaP requirements and scales for satellites 1U – 150 kg
Booms Oxford Space Systems AstroTube retractable boom with up to 3 m length and less than 0.5U size. Oxford Space Systems CubeSat Boom

Last update: 2019-10-30 | Changelog

CubeSat Instruments

Last update: 2019-10-30 | Changelog

Good overview of CubeSat instruments and technology progress by Anthony Freeman from 2016 CubeSat Instruments Status
Planetary Decadal Science Mapping and Nanosat-Compatible Instrument Availability by Caltech from 2016 CubeSat Instruments Status

Technology Organization or instrument Description Image
Visible and near-IR cameras Planet Scope PS2 29 MP detector capable of taking images with 3.7 m ground resolution and swath of 24.6 km × 16.4 km from 475 km altitude. Planet Labs 3U CubeSat
Hera Systems 1-meter resolution imaging satellite is built on a 12U cubesat, 22-kilogram form factor. Hera Systems 12U CubeSat Imager
Astro Digital (Aquila) 6U has 22 m resolution in RGB and NIR. 16U has 2.5 m resolution in RGB, red edge, and NIR using 70 MP sensor and butcher block filter. Astro Digital 6U CubeSat Imager
Malin Space Systems ECAM C-50 imager uses the Aptina MT9P031 sensor certified for deep space. 5 MP (2592 x 1944) CMOS. Malin Space Imager
JPL IntelliCam 20 MP, 15 deg FOV. 10 cm/pix at ~800 m. Asteroid (~5-12 m) detection from ~50K km. Science and optical (autonomous) naviation. NEA Scout and JPL IntelliCam
SATLANTIS iSIM 90 Imager for 12U/16U with up to 1.1 m GSD @ 500 km altitude and 11 km swath width. Dimensions 210 x 250 x 155 mm. SATLANTIS iSIM 90 Imager for CubeSats
Simera Sense xScape100 2U imager for 3/6U with 94 mm aperture. Simera Sense xScape100 Imager
Microwave radars NASA KaPDA Ka-band antenna KaPDA parabolic deployable Ka-band antenna with 0.5 m diameter, 1.5U stowed size, 1.2 kg mass and 42.5 dB gain. NASA RainCube 6U CubeSat
Radiometers Boulder (BEST) 150 and 183 GHz Radiometers 150 GHz radiometer has 2 channels between the 118 GHz oxygen absorption line and the 183 GHz water vapor absorption line. BEST Radiometers for nanosatellites
NASA Laser Heterodyne Radiometer (Mini-LHR) 4U occultation-viewing passive radiometer that measures methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor (H2O) in the limb.
Infrared imagers NASA BIRCHES 1.5U, 2.5 kg, 5 W. Spectral resolution (5 nm) to characterize volatiles (water etc) and minerals (oxides etc). Micro-crycooler to keep <140 K. NASA BIRCHES Spectrometer for CubeSats
Thoth Argus 1000 Infrared Range: 1000 nm - 1700 nm. Spectral resolution: 6 nm. 15 mm aperture, 0.15° FoV. Envelope: 45 × 50 × 80 mm. Mass < 230 g. Argus 1000 Infrared Spectrometer for nanosatellites
MWIR Grating Spectrometer (CIRAS) Spatial: 13.5 × 0.32 km. Spectral: 4.8-5.1 μm. 625 Channels. HOT-BIRD detectors comparable to HgCdTe at much reduced cost. CIRAS Spectrometer for CubeSats
Planetary Resources MWIR Midwave infrared imager (MWIR) in 3-5 μm with 15 m ground resolution. Planetary Resources MWIR Infrared Imager for microsatellites
Hyperspectral imagers / spectrometers Harris Fourier Spectrometer (CubeSat-FTS) 4 cm aperture, MWIR band only (5.7-8.3 um). Cooled to ~120K using an AVHRR-based passive cooler. Hundreds of hyperspectral bands. Harris Fourier Spectrometer (CubeSat-FTS)
Planetary Resources VNIR Visible-NIR 40 channel hyperspectral imager with 10 m resolution. Planetary Resources VNIR Imager
Planetary Resources CHAP Visible, NIR, IR and far-UV (90-140 nm) possible, 400 channels. Co-registration of spatial and spectral information.
VTT VISION Tunable spectral imager operating in the visible and near-infrared spectra (430 – 800 nm) for ozone vertical profile measurement. VISION Imager on 3U PICASSO
ESA Mini-TMA 90 m ground resolution, 565 km swath, 400-800 nm range, 300 channels, 15 nm spectral resolution, 150 g, 60 × 50 × 30 mm. ESA Mini-TMA Hyperspectral Imager
Snow and Water Imaging Spectrometer (SWIS) 4U, 1.9 kg, 350-1700 nm region with 5.7 nm sampling, 10 deg FoV, 160 m resolution from 500 km. Snow and Water Imaging Spectrometer (SWIS) Imager
cosine HyperScout 1U, 1.1 kg, 11W, 400-1000 nm in 45 bands, 40 m resolution and 164 km swatch from 300 km. cosine HyperScout Hyperspectral Imager
Neutron spectrometers NASA Mini-NS (Neutron Spectrometer) 2.5U detector using Cs2YLiCl6:Ce (CLYC) scintillator material to detect epithermal neutrons at spatial scales below 10 km. NASA Mini-NS Neutron Spectrometer
X-ray Amptek X-123SDD 7 × 10 × 2.5 cm, 180 g, 2.5 Watts, solar SXR spectral measurements in the 0.5-30 keV range (0.04-2.5 nm) with 0.15 keV energy resolution. Amptek X-ray Spectrometer
REDLEN M1770 Precise measurement of the cosmic (diffuse) X-ray background in the 20 – 50 KeV range. REDLEN CubeSat X-ray Payload
Lobster Eye X‐ray telescope Wide‐field optical system for X‐ray monitoring in range 3 ‐ 40 keV, based on Lobster Eye optics and Timepix detector VZLUSAT-1 X-ray Telescope
Mass spectrometer Quadrupole Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer (QIT-MS) 2.5 kg, 2U, isotopic accuracy <1%.
Gamma ray spectrometer Miniaturized SrI2 Gamma Ray Spectrometer 1U, 0.5 kg, 3 W. Europium-doped strontium iodide (SrI2) crystal is 15 × 15 × 10 mm. CubeSat Gamma-ray Spectrometer

Advanced CubeSat Concepts

Last update: 2019-10-30

Many future space science mission concepts in Keck Institute Final Report from 2014.

Field Summary Image
Structureless antenna Under funding from DARPA, Tethers Unlimited is developing technology that will enable new capabilities for small, low-power nanosatellites such as transmission of real-time video from GEO. CubeSat structureless antennas
Inflatable antennas NASA JPL is leading the development of inflatable X-band antenna with 34 dBi gain, 0.5U stowage volume that uses sublimating powder and is highly scalable. Arizona State University is also involved. CubeSat inflatable antenna
6U Collapsible Telescope NASA Ames 6U Collapsible Telescope primary mirror diameter is 152.6 mm (6 inches). Fits into 13.8 cm × 20.3 cm × 7 cm. CubeSat collapsible telescope
3U Folded Telescope UK Astronomy Technology Centre solution estimated resolution from 300 km altitude is about 0.5 m per pixel with a 3U CubeSat. Volume of the folded system is 1.5U. CubeSat folded telescope
3U Deployable Telescope Utah State University solution ground sampling distance is 1.3 m. The rectangular full field of view is 0.7° by 0.5° giving a ground coverage of 6.1 km by 4.6 km from a 500 km altitude with a 3U CubeSat. Fits within a 2.5U volume, but length can be reduced to 175 mm. CubeSat deployable telescope
Carbon-nanotube mirrors with integrated actuators Made of carbon nanotubes embedded in an epoxy resin. Lightweight, highly stable, easily reproducible and do not require polishing. Just pour the mixture of epoxy and carbon nanotubes into a mandrel or mold and let it cure and harden. CubeSat carbon mirrors
12U Ka-Band CubesatSAR 6U spacecraft, 12U total volume. Capable of 10 m resolution from 400 km. 3 min on-time per orbit. Tx power is 120 W and DC power in burst mode is 80W. Antenna size 1.7 × 3 m. Data rate is 104 Mbps and downlink rate is 40 Mbps 12U CubeSat SAR
6U SRI CubeSat Imaging Radar SRI-CIRES is designed for 500 km altitude, 2.9 GHz S-band, 25 m spatial resolution, 3.2 × 1.6 m. Module volume less 1U and < 1 kg. Interferometric SAR (InSAR) for Earth science. SRI CubeSat radar
NanoSAR Antenna is 1.14 × 0.18 m, 5.8 GHz frequency. Swath width of 60 km and pixel size of 10 × 3 m from 350 km altitude. Study by Delft from 2012.
Multi-Purpose CubeSat at ISS ESA study lead by Tyvak will include refueling from ISS and autonomous inspection of ISS. Seeker mission by NASA in 2019 is taking steps to achieve similar capabilities.
Thin film solar cells Enable much larger solar panels (blanket arrays) in the same volume and mass that can be folded or rolled. Alta Devices 2U concept can produce 29W with much room to grow using their record efficient and bendable cells. CubeSat thin-film solar cells
Radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) PocketRTG is a study by University of Bristol for a CubeSat-scale RTG using COTS fuel. Measures 0.5U and mass is 0.5 kg, but output is currently only 50 mW. Also studied by NASA Glenn for Lunar missions in permanently shadowed regions.
Mars Micro Orbiter 6U Cubesat to measure the Martian atmosphere in visible and infrared wavelengths from Mars orbit. Can also act as orbital communication relay for surface-based missions. Mars CubeSat Orbiter Concept
DAVID 6U CubeSat will flyby an asteroid much smaller than any investigated by now. Instruments are wide-field camera, a narrow-field camera and a point VNIR spectrometer. DAVID asteroid flyby CubeSat
L5 Space Weather Sentinels (L5SWS) One Keck Institude study proposes fractionated space weather monitoring from the Sun-Earth L5 point with 5 × 6U CubeSats. One is telecom and others would carry specific instruments. 98 m2 solar sails are used to enter orbit and perform station keeping. L5 CubeSats
Antimatter propulsion by Positron Dynamics Core innovation is the ability to generate intense beams of cold positrons using proprietary array moderators combined with compact radioisotope sources of positrons. First 6U CubeSat test was planned for 2016, will have delta-V between 1 to 10 km/s.

CubeSat Launch Providers / Brokerers, Programs and Prices

Last update: 2020-04-19 | Changelog
Provider CubeSats launched First launch Launch cost
Tyvak 121+ 2003
Space Flight Laboratory 10+ 2003
ISISpace 314+ 2009 $210,000 - 270,000 for 3U LEO
ISISpace 314+ 2009 $210,000 - 270,000 for 3U LEO
ISISpace 314+ 2009 $210,000 - 270,000 for 3U LEO
NASA CSLI and ELaNa 100+ 2011 Free
ESA Fly your Satellite! 10 2012 Free
NanoRacks 250+ 2012 $85,000 for 1U since 2017.
JAMSS / JAXA 10+ 2012
Spaceflight 200+ 2013 $295,000 for 3U LEO, $545,000 for 6U LEO, $995,000 for 12U LEO since 2015. GTO and Lunar also listed.
GAUSS 12+ 2013
Exolaunch 30+ 2017
GK Launch Services 50+ 2017
Rocket Lab 20+ 2018 $70,000 - 80,000 for 1U LEO, $200,000 - 250,000 for 3U LEO, was public on the website in 2016.
KiboCUBE 3+ 2018 Free
TriSept Corp 11+ 2018
SEOPS 4 2019
Space BD 1 2019
Alba Orbital 6 2019 PocketQube 1p $30,000, PocketQube 2p $47,000, PocketQube 3p $70,000
D-Orbit 0 2020
Virgin Orbit 0 2019 Assuming $10 million and 40 CubeSats gives $250,000 per 3U.
SpaceX N/A 2020 $1M per up to 200 kg.
Momentus 0 2020
Precious Payload 0 2020
SAB Launch Services 0 2020
Astrobotic 0 2021 $1.2M per kg to Lunar orbit or surface
PT Scientists 0 2021 $0.9M per kg to Lunar orbit was public on the website in 2018.
Responsive Access 0 2021
NOAA 0 2022
ULA (United Launch Alliance) 0 ? Free
Aevum 0 ?
LaMont Aerospace 0 ?
Mitsui 0 ?
SSL 0 ?
Goonhilly Earth Station 0 ? $1.3 M per kg
Circle Aerospace 0 ?

New launchers will be added here when they are very close to commercial missions because there are too many small rockets in development as seen from NewSpace Index.
Best overview of (upcoming) small satellite launchers by Carlos Niederstrasser and Warren Frick of Orbital ATK at IAC 2016. (I will mostly wait for the first launch before adding.)
There are many more providers and special (free) launch opportunities and competitions. e.g. with SLS to Moon through Cube Quest and with ESA AIM to Didymos asteroid.
Most nanosatellites from Japan, India, China and Russia are launched by their space agencies.

Selected Upcoming CubeSat Missions

Mission Destination Summary Image
Mars Cube One (MarCO) Mars flyby Two 6U deep space CubeSats were planned to be launched in 2016, but delayed due to InSight Mars lander. They flew by Mars during the landing of InSight and relayed status in real time. First interplanetary CubeSats. NASA 6U CubeSat MarCO (Mars Cube One)
CPOD LEO Docking with 3U nanosatellites. Will demonstrate precision flying around each other and then docking. Will enable to explore asteroids, moons and to inspect other spacecraft. CPOD 3U CubeSats
RSat (Repair CubeSat) LEO Two 7 DoF robotic arms fitted with manipulators to enable inspection and servicing. Operates with BRICSat that provides propulsion and attitude control. Magnetic docking system will include power and data pass-through. Part of AMODS (Autonomous Mobile On-orbit Diagnostic System). RSat Repair CubeSat
NEA Scout Asteroid flyby First CubeSat to reach an asteroid and map it using an ~80 m2 solar sail for propulsion. One of 13 6U CubeSats that will launch with a new NASA SLS rocket, which will send Orion capsule on a trip around the Moon. NASA NEA-Scout 6U CubeSat
Lunar Flashlight Moon orbit First CubeSat to reach the Moon and the first to use lasers to look for water ice. Near infrared lasers will shine light into the shaded polar regions, while the spectrometer measures surface reflection and composition. One of 13 6U SLS CubeSats. NASA 6U CubeSat Lunar Flashlight
OMOTENASHI Moon orbit, Moon surface Will release a 1 kg lunar lander with inflatable airbags to demonstrate technology for low-cost and very small spacecraft to explore the lunar surface and will measure the radiation environment. One of 13 6U SLS CubeSats. OMOTENASHI CubeSat and lunar lander
SWIMSat GEO 6U CubeSat to monitor solar Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) and monitor Earth meteor impacts. Might be the first CubeSat to geostationary (GEO) orbit, but too early to know for sure. SWIMSat first GEO CubeSat
M-ARGO 50-m asteroid 12U CubeSat from ESA to rendezvous with a small rapidly spinning asteroid and spend around six months surveying with multispectral imager and laser altimeter. ESA M-ARGO 12U CubeSat
DARCSIDE Europa, Jupiter moon 3U CubeSat flying with Europa Clipper spacecraft to study Europa's atmosphere. Experiments are planned to be drag measurement and high energy particle detector. DARCSIDE Europa moon CubeSat concept

Last update: 2019-10-30 | Changelog

Ground Station Networks for Small Satellites

Organization Sites active / planned Status Price
Spaceflight (Networks) 8 / 12+ Internal,Dormant? $1.95/min for UHF. $19.95/min for S/X band.
KSAT (LITE) 22 / 22 Operational €250/pass ?
Swedish Space Corporation (Infinity) 19 / ? Operational
Libre Space (SatNOGS) 300+ / ? Operational Free
ATLAS Space Operations (Freedom) 13 / 21 Operational
Leaf Space 4 / 20 Operational 5€/MB to receive UHV/VHF. 0.4€/MB to receive S band. 0.1€/Mbyte to receive X band. Better custom plans.
RBC Signals 50 / 50+ Operational $19.95 per pass for the X-band downlink service with a monthly minimum of $595.
Infostellar 3 / 22+ Operational $2.70/min or $3000 per month for 40 min daily
Cingulan Space 1 / ? Operational
Amazon 2 / 12 Operational $3/min narrowband reserve, $10/min, $22/min wideband on-demand
Lockheed Martin (Verge) ? / ? Operational
Goonhilly Earth Station 1 / 1 Operational
CONTEC 1 / ? Operational
Capricorn Space 1 / 2+ Operational
CM Technology (CMT) 23 / ? Operational
Heliaq 0 / 50 2020
BridgeComm 0 / 10 In development
Arctic Space Technologies 0 / ? In development
OrbitLinx 0 / ? In development
Analytical Space 1 / ? In development
EnduroSat (Space Data Gateway / InnoSpaceComm / Digital Ground Station) 0 / ? In development
Astrogate Labs 0 / ? In development
Space Union 0 / ? In development
COMRAY 0 / ? Dormant?
GENSO 0 / ? Dormant?
ConsiNet 0 / ? Cancelled
Audacy 0 / 3 Cancelled
Cubehub 0 / ? Cancelled
Cubersation 0 / 6 Cancelled

Last update: 2020-04-19 | Changelog

Mission Control Systems (MCS) for Nanosatellites

From commercial services and products to freeware mission control software

Mission Control System Status Description
Solenix (Elveti ) In use, In development Complete, cost effective solution for operating and monitoring nano and small satellites. Multi-satellites and multiple ground station capability. Scripts for simplified operations. Leverage key aerospace standards.
Bright Ascension (MCS) In use, In development A functional simulator allows operator training and the validation of onboard scripts before uploading. Infrastructure software to connect the ground stations to the mission operations centre.
NASA Open MCT In use, In development Mission control framework for visualization of data on desktop and mobile devices.
Ball Aerospace (COSMOS) In use, In development The User Interface for Command and Control of Embedded Systems
Spaceteq (MCS) In use, In development Complete management solution for small satellite missions.
Libre Space (Dashboard) In use, In development Dashboard and Data Warehouse for decoded telemetry.
Kubos (Major Tom) In use, In development Full-Stack Flight Software for Satellites. Introducing a space-grade flight system with ongoing support. Cloud based mission operations and data analytics service. Integration with both cloud based ground network providers and on-site hardware.
Space Applications Services (Yamcs) In use, In development Heritage on ISS and now adding features to communicate spacecraft using CCSDS protocols.
Spaceit (MCS) In development MCS as a service, cloud based solution. In ESA BIC Estonia.
Saber Astronautics (PIGI ) In development Mission control software for the modern age. A video-game quality interface allows you to reach any point of the spacecraft or environment, while world class data mining gives operational intelligence to the meaning of the data.
D-Orbit (Aurora) In development Cloud-based mission control platform.
Interstel (COSMOS ) In development Spin-off company of the University of Hawaii at Manoa. Primary purpose is to market iCOSMOS™ and adapt it for specific and more proprietary applications.
Audacy (Quindar ) In development Aims to create a modern, browser based, real time data visualization platform to monitor and operate complex engineering systems in a spaceflight mission operations setting. Commercially backed by Audacy to maintain it for free.
NEXT (NCS-1) In development Based on the European Ground System - Common Core. Simplified deployment and configuration using Docker. Native Multi Mission functionality.
Mission Control Space Services In development Focus on (lunar) mission operations, onboard autonomy, and artificial intelligence.
EnduroSat (Digital Mission Control) In development Our satellites come with a unique OS, accessible through our AWS-based service. Access and control your satellite on-demand.
Cognitive Space (CNTIENT) In early stage? A software framework that can be maintained, improved, diagnosed and reconfigured easily to allow for autonomous satellite operations.
AIKO (MiRAGE) In early stage? Enabling autonomous operations through state of the art Artificial Intelligence.
EMSISTI In early stage? Web platform for Data Center and Mission of a space project with use of SQL database features and accessibility for mobile devices.
CubeSat Data (CubeSat Data) In early stage? CubeSat Data can manage the entire data pipeline of your cube or small satellite mission.
Telespazio Vega Germany (Enable Space) In early stage? Creating a complete new platform for the operations of space missions. We are inventing the next generation of ground software.

Last update: 2020-04-19 | Changelog

Nanosatellite Crowdfunding Campaigns

Project name Raised Goal Year Platform
KickSat $74,586 $30,000 2011 Kickstarter
Sampling Space $880 $20,000 2011 Kickstarter
ArduSat $106,330 $35,000 2012 Kickstarter
SkyCube $116,890 $82,500 2012 Kickstarter
LunarSail $15,817 $11,000 2013 Kickstarter
CAT Thruster $67,865 $200,000 2013 Kickstarter
ARKYD $1,505,366 $1,000,000 2013 Kickstarter
PocketQube $3,900 $3,700 2013 Kickstarter
Fox-1C $26,661 $25,000 2014 Fundrazr
Ex-Alta 1 $36,681 $30,000 2014 Useed
UW Race to Moon $16,541 $50,000 2015 Useed@UW
Caelus $4 $3,800 2015 Kickstarter
OzQube-1 $2,330 $50,000 2015 GoFundMe
BroncoSat 1 $0 $100,000 2015 C3Funding
LightSail $1,241,615 $200,000 2015 Kickstarter
Mayak $3,157 $45,000 2015 Kickstarter
CubeSat $63 $60,000 2015 Kickstarter
CubeSat 4 Disclosure $13,280 $12,000 2015 Indiegogo
CubeSat 4 Disclosure $10,770 $10,000 2016 Kickstarter
CubeSat 4 Disclosure $392 $5,000 2016 Kickstarter
KitCube Lunar Orbiter $124,125 $100,000 2016 Crowdfund MIT
Irazú $81,369 $75,000 2016 Kickstarter
Cu-REO $165 $40,000 2016 Indiegogo
HyperQube $1,712 $230,000 2016 Kickstarter
Cislunar Explorers $3,048 $50,000 2016 Kickstarter
SPOC Sat $5,377 $25,000 2016 GeorgiaFunder
Project DaVinci $9,725 $250,000 2016 Kickstarter
Modular CubeSat $1,214 $13,000 2017 Indiegogo
Triteia $23,230 $110,000 2017 Indiegogo
MoonWatcher $17,155 $150,000 2017 Kickstarter
Surya Satellite 1 (SS-1) $980 $220,000 2017 Kitabisa
ESTCube-2 €38,743 €30,000 2017 Hooandja
D-SAT €12,328 €25,000 2017 Kickstarter
MOCI $29,243 $40,000 2017 GeorgiaFunder
Positron Dynamics $1,303,000 $1,500,000 2017 Propelx
OTCNS $28 $300,000 2017 Indiegogo
CU-E3 $3,095 $100,000 2018 Boulder
ASP1 $8,541 $300,000 2018 Crowdcube
CubeSat Structures $2008 $3,846 2018 Kickstarter
Brown CubeSat $7,230 $10,000 2018 Homepage
DaVinci Satellite $1,200 $10,000 2019 Kickstarter
AmbaSat-1 $55,219 $32,861 2019 Kickstarter
LigerSat $1,553 $70,000 2019 Kickstarter
blair3sat $200 $1,000 2019 Kickstarter
3D Metal Printed Satellites $0 $355,000 2019 Crowdfunder
ASTRAEUS $103 $6,500 2019 GoFundMe
Last update: 2020-01-03 | Changelog

Smallsat and CubeSat Conferences

Conference Dates Location
5th IAA Conference on University Satellite Missions and CubeSat Workshop January 28 - 31, 2020 Rome, Italy
11th European CubeSat Symposium November 25 - 27, 2020 Palaiseau, France
4S Symposium 2020 September 14 - 18, 2020 Vilamoura, Portugal
Finnish Satellite Workshop 2020 January 22 - 24, 2020 Helsinki, Finland
2020 SmallSat Symposium February 3 - 6, 2019 Mountain View, California, USA
Spanish Small Satellite International Forum 2020 February 25 - 27, 2020 Malaga, Spain
2020 CubeSat Developers Workshop May 4 - 6, 2020 San Luis Obispo, California, USA
9th Annual Lunarcubes Workshop May 7 - 8, 2020 San Luis Obispo, California, USA
Interplanetary Small Satellite Conference 2020 May 11 - 12, 2020 Pasadena, California
9th Interplanetary CubeSat Workshop May 26 - 27, 2020 Beijing, China
SmallSat 2020 August 1 - 6, 2020 Logan, Utah, USA
71th IAC 2020 October 12 - 16, 2020 Dubai, United Arab Emirates
NewSpace Europe November 11 - 12, 2020 Luxembourg

Last update: 2020-04-19 | Changelog

CubeSat Photos From Space

Images of Earth and space taken with CubeSats and other nanosatellites.

Nanosatellite U or mass Photos from space Source
XI-V 2005-10-27 1U XI-V
AeroCube-2 2007-04-17 1U AeroCube-2 Link
CUTE-1.7+APD-2 2008-04-28 3 kg CUTE-1.7+APD-2CUTE-1.7+APD-2CUTE-1.7+APD-2CUTE-1.7+APD-2CUTE-1.7+APD-2CUTE-1.7+APD-2CUTE-1.7+APD-2 Link
AeroCube-3 2009-05-19 1U AeroCube-3AeroCube-3AeroCube-3AeroCube-3AeroCube-3 Link
PSSC-2 2011-07-20 3.7 kg PSSC-2PSSC-2PSSC-2 Link
MaSat-1 2012-02-13 1U MaSat-1MaSat-1MaSat-1MaSat-1 Link
AeroCube-4 2012-09-13 1U AeroCube-4AeroCube-4AeroCube-4AeroCube-4AeroCube-4 Link
Dove-2 2013-04-19 3U Dove-2Dove-2 Link
Dove-1 2013-04-21 3U Dove-1Dove-1Dove-1 Link
PhoneSat 1.0 2013-04-21 1U PhoneSat 1.0 Link
ESTCube-1 2013-05-07 1U ESTCube-1ESTCube-1ESTCube-1ESTCube-1ESTCube-1ESTCube-1ESTCube-1ESTCube-1ESTCube-1ESTCube-1ESTCube-1ESTCube-1 Link
Vermont Lunar Cubesat 2013-11-20 1U Vermont Lunar CubesatVermont Lunar CubesatVermont Lunar CubesatVermont Lunar Cubesat Link
LituanicaSAT-1 2014-01-09 1U LituanicaSAT-1LituanicaSAT-1LituanicaSAT-1 Link
LightSail 2015-05-20 3U LightSail Link
Athenoxat-1 2015-12-16 3U Athenoxat-1Athenoxat-1Athenoxat-1Athenoxat-1Athenoxat-1Athenoxat-1Athenoxat-1Athenoxat-1Athenoxat-1 Link
BEESAT 4 2016-06-22 1U BEESAT 4 Link
AlSat Nano 2016-09-26 3U AlSat NanoAlSat NanoAlSat NanoAlSat NanoAlSat NanoAlSat Nano Link
Aalto-1 2017-06-23 3U Aalto-1 Link
CICERO 2017-06-23 6U CICERO Link
Ursa Maior 2017-06-23 3U Ursa MaiorUrsa MaiorUrsa MaiorUrsa Maior Link
NanoACE 2017-07-14 3U NanoACE Link
ASTERIA 2017-08-14 6U ASTERIA Link
Buccaneer 2017-11-18 3U Buccaneer Buccaneer Link
Arkyd 6 2018-01-12 6U Arkyd 6 Link
CICERO 2018-01-12 6U CICERO Link
Tyvak-61c (GEOStare) 2018-01-12 3U Tyvak-61c (GEOStare) Link
Juvenile 2018-02-02 3U Juvenile Link
TRICOM 1R Tasuki 2018-02-03 3U TRICOM 1R TasukiTRICOM 1R Tasuki Link
MarCO 2018-05-05 6U MarCOMarCO Link
RainCube 2018-05-21 6U RainCube Link
CP7 (Dave) 2018-09-15 1U CP7 (Dave)CP7 (Dave)CP7 (Dave)CP7 (Dave)CP7 (Dave)CP7 (Dave)CP7 (Dave)CP7 (Dave)CP7 (Dave) Link
CICERO 2018-11-11 6U CICERO Link
IRVINE01 2018-11-11 1U IRVINE01 Link
MYSAT-1 2018-11-17 1U MYSAT-1MYSAT-1MYSAT-1 Link
CICERO 2018-11-29 6U CICERO Link
Reaktor Hello World 2018-11-29 2U Reaktor Hello WorldReaktor Hello WorldReaktor Hello World Link
Corvus-BC (Landmapper-BC) 2018-12-03 6U Corvus-BC (Landmapper-BC)Corvus-BC (Landmapper-BC)Corvus-BC (Landmapper-BC) Link
PW-Sat2 2018-12-03 2U PW-Sat2PW-Sat2PW-Sat2PW-Sat2PW-Sat2PW-Sat2PW-Sat2 Link
SeaHawk 2018-12-03 3U SeaHawk Link
Delphini-1 2018-12-05 1U Delphini-1Delphini-1Delphini-1 Link
STF-1 2018-12-16 3U STF-1STF-1 Link
ZACUBE-2-5 2018-12-27 3U ZACUBE-2-5ZACUBE-2-5 Link
Astrocast 2019-04-01 3U Astrocast Link
NepaliSat-1 2019-04-17 1U NepaliSat-1 Link
Raavana-1 2019-04-17 1U Raavana-1Raavana-1Raavana-1 Link
Seeker 2019-04-17 3U SeekerSeekerSeekerSeeker Link
Światowid 2019-04-17 2U ŚwiatowidŚwiatowid Link
Uguisu 2019-04-17 1U UguisuUguisu Link
Xiaoxiang-1 04 2019-06-05 6U Xiaoxiang-1 04Xiaoxiang-1 04Xiaoxiang-1 04Xiaoxiang-1 04 Link
CP9 2019-06-25 2U CP9CP9CP9CP9CP9CP9 Link
LightSail 2019-06-25 3U LightSailLightSailLightSailLightSailLightSailLightSailLightSailLightSailLightSailLightSailLightSailLightSailLightSailLightSail Link
BEESAT 9 2019-07-05 1U BEESAT 9 Link
Lucky-7 2019-07-05 1U Lucky-7Lucky-7Lucky-7 Link
BRO-1 2019-08-18 6U BRO-1 Link
Taurus-1 (Jinniuzuo-1) 2019-09-12 10 kg Taurus-1 (Jinniuzuo-1)Taurus-1 (Jinniuzuo-1)Taurus-1 (Jinniuzuo-1) Link
HuskySat-1 2019-11-02 3U HuskySat-1HuskySat-1 Link
Xiaoxiang-1 08 2019-11-03 6U Xiaoxiang-1 08 Link
CICERO 2020-05-30 6U CICERO Link
MYSAT-2 2020-12-30 1U MYSAT-2MYSAT-2MYSAT-2 Link

Last update: 2019-06-18

CubeSat Costs

Often complete project and whole mission costs with big consortiums.
Please read the description carefully to estimate single CubeSat costs.

Project Size Organization Manufactured (AIVT) by Costs Source Funded primarily by
AISTECHSAT (DANU) 2U 2U Aistech GomSpace $230,000 for the single CubeSat platform Link
Buccaneer 6U Australian Defence Science and Technology Organisation Inovor $2.5M Link Australian Defence Force
CAPSTONE 12U Advanced Space Tyvak $13.7 million Link NASA
CatSat 6U University of Arizona In-house $450000 for the GomSpace 6U platform. Link
Clyde Orbcomm 3U AAC Clyde Space AAC Clyde Space $5,900,000 for the manufacturing, launch and long-term operations of two CubeSats Link
DAILI 6U (1x6U) The Aerospace Corporation In-house $28.5 million for complete project. Link NASA
AISTECHSAT (DANU) 2U 2U Aistech GomSpace $1,570,000 for additional 6 DANU platforms and for AIVT of 10 DANU CubeSats Link
Deorbitsail 3U EU FP7 consortium SSTL $3,200,000 for the whole project and consortium including platform and launch Link EU / European Commission
Diamond 6U (Sky and Space Global) 6U Sky and Space Global GomSpace $5,950,000 is the order value for the first batch of 8 CubeSats Link
DUPLEX 6U CU Aerospace NearSpace Launch $1.7 million Link NASA
GEMS (Orbital Micro Systems) 6U Orbital Micro Systems AAC Clyde Space $785,000 Link UK Space Launch Programme
GOMX-5 12U GomSpace GomSpace $337,000 for the design and specification work of two CubeSats Link
HERMES-SP 3U INAF (National Institute for Astrophysics) In-house $3,950,000 for the whole consortium including 6 spacecraft (HERMES-SP, HERMES-TP) with launches and operations Link EU / European Commission
Hyperion 1 12U Inovor Inovor $3.85 million Link Australian Defence Force
Infante 16U Tekever In-house $10 million for total costs of the consortium. Link EU / European Commission
Intuition-1 6U KP Labs AAC Clyde Space $1,200,000 for design, manufacturing, launch and early operations. $650,000 is for the platform. Link
GEMS (Orbital Micro Systems) 3U Orbital Micro Systems AAC Clyde Space $1,880,000 for four 3U IOD Mission platforms Link UK Satellite Applications Catapult
IOD Mission 3 6U Horizon Technologies AAC Clyde Space $1,880,000 for four 3U IOD Mission platforms and $265,000 to upgrade this into 6U Link UK Satellite Applications Catapult
TARS (Kepler) 6U Kepler Communications AAC Clyde Space $880,000 grant for the mission (actual CubeSat costs unknown) Link UK Satellite Applications Catapult
Kleos Scouting Mission 6U Kleos Space GomSpace $2.83 million for 4 satellites Link
Link-16 CubeSat (XVI) 12U ViaSat Blue Canyon $10 million for the whole project. Link
LLITED 1.5U The Aerospace Corporation In-house $2,520,000 for two spacecraft and mission including launch and operations Link NASA
M-ARGO 12U ESA GomSpace $450,000 for Phase-A Link ESA (European Space Agency)
MarCO 6U NASA In-house $18,500,000 for two spacecraft and all project costs Link NASA
MIR-SAT1 1U Mauritius Research Council AAC Clyde Space $405,00 for platform, operations, ground stations and training. Link Mauritius Research Council
NARSSCube-2 1U National Authority for Remote Sensing and Space Sciences (NARSS) In-house $60000 Link
NEPTUNO 3U Elecnor Deimos In-house $2.8M is the total budget. Link ERDF (European Regional Development Fund)Self-funded
NSLSat 6U NSLComm AAC Clyde Space $1.5 million for the &U satellite, launch and operations plus a ground segment software solution. Link
OPS-SAT 3U ESA (European Space Agency) Graz University of Technology $2.66 million Link
Outernet 1U 1U Outernet AAC Clyde Space $1,250,000 for three Outernet CubeSat platforms Link UK Space Agency
PEARLS (Sky and Space Global) 8U (4Ux2U) Sky and Space Global GomSpace $5,950,000 is the order value for the first batch of 8 CubeSats Link
OSIRIS4CubeSat 3U DLR (German Aerospace Center) GomSpace $560,000 for the single CubeSat platform Link DLR (German Aerospace Center)
RACE (ESA) 6U ESA GomSpace $450,000 for the first phase A of two CubeSats for the larger consortium Link ESA (European Space Agency)
IOD Mission 6 6U Craft Prospect Open Cosmos $1,880,000 for four 3U IOD Mission platforms Link UK Satellite Applications Catapult
SeaHawk 3U University of North Carolina Wilmington AAC Clyde Space $1,680,000 for two CubeSat platforms Link Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation
SEAM 3U Royal Institute of Technology GomSpace $3,000,000 for the whole project and consortium including platform and launch Link EU / European Commission
SULIS 12U Northumbria University ? $105 million for the whole consortium Link UK Space Agency
SunRISE 6U NASA JPL In-house $62.6 million to design, build, and launch the SunRISE mission. Link
TEMPEST-D 6U Colorado State University Blue Canyon $8.2 million Link
UKube-1 3U UK Space Agency AAC Clyde Space $1,000,000 for CubeSat platform and ground segment Link UK Space Agency
Unknown DARPA CubeSat 6U DARPA In-house $4.5 million for the program Link US Air Force
VPM 6U Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) In-house $4.5 million for the program Link US Air Force

Last update: 2019-07-14

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